Pre-test preparation or requirements
• Sample can be drawn at any time. No fasting or special preparation required.
• Sample should taken in plain vial.
Significance of test
Rubella is spread by direct contact with nasal or throat secretion of infected individuals. Symptoms may include a rash, slight fever, joint aches, headache, discomfort, runny nose and reddened eyes. The incubation period for rubella is 12-13 days; in most cases, symptoms appear within with 16-18 days. If contracted during the first trimester of pregnancy, Rubella infection can lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Infection of a pregnant woman may result in a miscarriage, stillbirth or the birth of an infant with abnormalities, which may include deafness, cataracts, heart defects, liver and spleen damage and mental retardation. CRS occurs among at least 25 percent of infants born to women who have had rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy. The presence of IgG antibody to rubella virus is indicative of vaccination or previous exposure. In individuals with acute rubella infection, four-fold or greater increase in IgG antibody level is indicative of recent infection. Rubella IgM antibodies are detected by ELISA in 100% of patients between days 11-25 after onset of the exanthema, in 60-80% of individuals at days 15-25 after vaccination and in 90-97% of infants with congenital rubella between 2 weeks and 3 months after birth. Rubella IgM antibody often persists for 20-30 days after acute infection or vaccination.